The paper deals with the creation and implementation of a methodology for optimizing the parameters of cascade control of the machine tool axis drives. The first part presents the identification of a dynamic model of the axis based on experimental data from measuring the axis dynamics. The second part describes the controller model, selection of optimization objective functions, and optimization of constraint conditions. The optimization of controllers is tuned by simulation using identified state-space model. Subsequently, the optimization procedure is implemented on the identified model, and the found control parameters are used on a real machine tool linear axis with different loads. The implementation of the proposed complex procedure on a real horizontal machine tool proved the advantage of simultaneous tuning of all parameters using optimization methods. The strategy solves the problem of mutual interaction of all control law parameters disabling effective usability of gradual sequential tuning. The methodology was developed on a speed control loop, the tuning of which is usually the most difficult due to the close interaction with the dynamic properties of the machine mechanics. The whole procedure is also applicable to the position and current control loop.